- How did the first US Army come about? Who led it? (Hint: It's the guy pictured here...)
- What was significant about the Battle of Bunker Hill in terms of location, casualties, and strategy?
- According to the textbook, who wanted peace: the Colonists or Britain? Why do you think they wanted peace more than the other side?
- Summarize the excerpt from Thomas Paine's "Common Sense." What was Paine saying? What was his tone?
- Who was Thomas Jefferson?
Read pp. 104-105, starting with the paragraph before The Battle of Bunker Hill. Answer the following comprehension questions:
"The British are coming!" And so is the Revolutionary War! Here is a recap of today's lesson, summarized by Flocabulary.com's music video and lyrics to "This Ain't Workin'."
The British won the French & Indian War, as we know from our studies in history class. However, what if they hadn't? What if the French and "Indians" had won? Here are several essays and historical fiction stories that explore what might have happened in our histories and currently, if the French and Native Americans had continued to triumph, as they did those first two years, and ultimately won the war.
Step 1: Examine the different personalities of the Colonies through these 4 perspectives:
PERSPECTIVE 1: Samuel Adams and The Sons of Liberty
"American patriot Samuel Adams (1722-1803) failed as a brewer and newspaper publisher before becoming one of the Independence movement’s most celebrated leaders and statesmen. An organizer of Boston’s Sons of Liberty, Adams conceived of the Boston Committee of Correspondence and coordinated Boston’s resistance to the Tea Act, which climaxed in the famous Tea Party. He represented Massachusetts in the Continental Congress from 1774 through 1781, and was elected to the Massachusetts convention on the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. After serving as John Hancock’s lieutenant from 1789 to 1793, Adams took over as governor before retiring in 1797."
PERSPECTIVE 2: Abigail Adams and The Daughters of Liberty
Abigail was the wife of John Adams, the second president of the United States, and the mother of Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. Abigail was a political activist who stood up for independence and women's rights. Her letters and memoirs are considered important historical documents. Here is one letter to John Adams, written April 5, 1776:
"Not having an opportunity of sending this I shall add a few lines more; tho not with a heart so gay. I have been attending the sick chamber of our Neighbour Trot whose affliction I most sensibly feel but cannot discribe, striped of two lovely children in one week. Gorge the Eldest died on wedensday and Billy the youngest on fryday, with the Canker fever, a terible disorder so much like the throat distemper, that it differs but little from it. Betsy Cranch has been very bad, but upon the recovery. Becky Peck they do not expect will live out the day. Many grown persons are now sick with it, in this street 5. It rages much in other Towns. The Mumps too are very frequent. Isaac is now confined with it. Our own little flock are yet well. My Heart trembles with anxiety for them. God preserve them.
"I want to hear much oftener from you than I do. March 8 [John to Abigail, 08 March 1776] was the last date of any that I have yet had. -- You inquire of whether I am making Salt peter. I have not yet attempted it, but after Soap making believe I shall make the experiment. I find as much as I can do to manufacture cloathing for my family whowhich would else be Naked. I know of but one person in this part of the Town who has made any, that is Mr. Tertias Bass as he is calld who has got very near an hundred weight which has been found to be very good. I have heard of some others in the other parishes. Mr. Reed of Weymouth has been applied to, to go to Andover to the mills which are now at work, and has gone. I have lately seen a small Manuscrip describing the proportions for the various sorts of powder,such asfit for cannon, small arms and pistols [illegible] . If it would be of any Service your way I will get it transcribed and send it to you. -- Every one of your Friends send their Regards, and all the little ones. Your Brothers youngest child lies bad with convulsion fitts. Adieu. I need not say how much I am Your ever faithfull Friend."
PERSPECTIVE 3: Loyalists to the British Crown
Here is an excerpt from an excellent historical fiction book entitled, The Loyalist's Wife.
Perspective #4: The Puritan
In the mid- to late-1700s, the Colonies experienced a spiritual awakening, called the "Great Awakening." This meant that a pretty religious region turned into a SUPER religious region. One product of the great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards, a fiery Puritan who wrote one of the most famous sermons in American history:
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
"We find it easy to tread on and crush a worm that we see crawling on the earth; so it is easy for us to cut or singe a slender thread that any thing hangs by: thus easy is it for God, when he pleases, to cast his enemies down to hell. What are we, that we should think to stand before him, at whose rebuke the earth trembles, and before whom the rocks are thrown down?
"They are now the objects of that very same anger and wrath of God, that is expressed in the torments of hell. And the reason why they do not go down to hell at each moment, is not because God, in whose power they are, is not then very angry with them; as he is with many miserable creatures now tormented in hell, who there feel and bear the fierceness of his wrath. Yea, God is a great deal more angry with great numbers that are now on earth: yea, doubtless, with many that are now in this congregation, who it may be are at ease, than he is with many of those who are now in the flames of hell.
"So that it is not because God is unmindful of their wickedness, and does not resent it, that he does not let loose his hand and cut them off. God is not altogether such an one as themselves, though they may imagine him to be so. The wrath of God burns against them, their damnation does not slumber; the pit is prepared, the fire is made ready, the furnace is now hot, ready to receive them; the flames do now rage and glow. The glittering sword is whet, and held over them, and the pit hath opened its mouth under them.
"The devil stands ready to fall upon them, and seize them as his own, at what moment God shall permit him. They belong to him; he has their souls in his possession, and under his dominion. The scripture represents them as his goods, Luke 11:21. The devils watch them; they are ever by them at their right hand; they stand waiting for them, like greedy hungry lions that see their prey, and expect to have it, but are for the present kept back. If God should withdraw his hand, by which they are restrained, they would in one moment fly upon their poor souls. The old serpent is gaping for them; hell opens its mouth wide to receive them; and if God should permit it, they would be hastily swallowed up and lost."
The British won the French and Indian War, as we have been studying in history class. But what if they hadn't? What if the French and "Indians" had won that war? Here are several essays and historical fiction stories describing what could have happened had the French and "Indians" continued to triumph, as they did for the first two years of the war. Excellent job to all the authors!
Reading historical fiction is a great way to get to know the time period, history, and stories better. (It's also a great way to get stickers on your Rewards Punch Pass.) :)
Here are some of my suggestions for historical literature having to do with the founding era:
· The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore: Deep in the forests of upper New York State, the brave woodsman Hawkeye and his loyal Mohican friends Chingachgook and Uncas become embroiled in the bloody battles of the French and Indian War. The abduction of the beautiful Munro sisters by hostile savages, the treachery of the renegade brave Magua, the ambush of innocent settlers, and the thrilling events that lead to the final tragic confrontation between rival war parties create an unforgettable, spine-tingling picture of life on the frontier.
· Fever, 1793 by Laurie Halse Anderson: In 1793, 14-year-old Matilda Cook finds herself in the middle of a struggle to keep herself and her loved ones alive in the midst of the yellow fever epidemic.
· The Year of the Hangman by Gary Blackwood: Kidnapped from England to the American colonies, a fifteen-year-old boy becomes part of a story that asks, what if the British had defeated the Americans in 1777?
· The Winter People by Joseph Bruchac: A fourteen-year-old Abenaki Indian sets off to rescue his mother and sisters after his village is destroyed in an attack by British soldiers in 1759.
· Sweetgrass Basket by Marlene Carvelle: Two Mohawk sisters describe their lives at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School as they try to assimilate into white culture and one of them is falsely accused of stealing.
· Redemption by Julie Chibbaro: A twelve-year-old English girl and her mother flee with other religious protesters to the New World in the early 1500’s and find both heartbreak and hope when they arrive.
· My Brother Sam is Dead by James Collier: A classic that recounts the tragedy that strikes the Meeker family during the Revolution when one son joins the rebel forces while his family tries to stay neutral in a Tory town.
· The Ransom of Mercy Carter by Caroline Cooney: After being captured in an Indian attack in 1704, Mercy Carter becomes accustomed to the Kahnawake Indian way of life and wonders if she will want to return to her old life.
· The Journal of William Thomas Emerson, a Revolutionary War Patriot (Dear America/My Name is America) by Barry Dennenberg: As tensions escalate in the period before the Revolutionary War, a boy surrounded by political rumblings and violence becomes a spy for the rebel colonists.
· Copper Sun by Sharon Draper: Amari’s life is shattered when her family is murdered and she is taken aboard a slave ship to the Carolinas and purchased by a plantation owner as a present for his son.
· Beaded Moccasins: The Story of Mary Campbell by Lynda Durrant: A twelve-year-old white girl has to give up her life and her family and adapt to a new one after she is kidnapped by Delaware Indians in 1759.
· Echohawk by Lynda Durrant: A white boy is taken from his family and raised by the Mohican tribe as one of their own, and as he grows older, he realizes that he must make a choice between the Mohicans or the world he came from long ago.
· And many more!
This week, we're focusing on the French and Indian War. To help you understanding, here are two videos that help break down all the information:
9A is Ms. Nina's 9th grade class! Check back here to see what we're working on.